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3 Elements of Demand

The three drivers of customer satisfaction are Quality, Cost, and Delivery.

See also QCD


3 Elements of Just-In-Time (JIT)

The three elements of JIT are 1) Takt Time, 2) Flow Production, and 3) a Pull System.


3 Gen Principle

The combination of going to the Genba or Gemba (actual place), to observe the Genbutsu or Gembutsu (item or product), to obtain Genjitsu (facts) in order to solve problems.


3 Reals

The '3 Reals' relate closely to the concept of the 3 Gen Principle. '3 Reals' simply means that in order to learn something you need go to the point of creation, get the facts, and see what is happening. (Go to the Real place, to make Real observations of the object or issue, to get the Real facts.) In Lean the use of the '3 Reals' helps to focus a group away from speculation and conflict by focusing on facts and truths.



Dirty, Dangerous, and/or Difficult working conditions or processes.



Production, Preparation, Process. Rapidly designing production processes and equipment to ensure capability, built-in quality, productivity, and Takt-Flow-Pull. The Production Preparation Process minimizes necessary resources, such as capital, space, inventory, and time.


5 Why

A simple and effective method of analyzing root causes and solving problems by asking ‘Why?’ five times (or as many times as needed to get to the root cause of the problem).

See also Root Cause and Root Cause Analysis



5C is a 5 step technique, very similar to 5S, that supports sustainable QCD by stabilizing, maintaining, and improving the safest working environment possible. The 5C's are:

Clear Out: Separate essential from non essential
Configure: A place for everything and everything in its place
Clean and Check: Clean to be able to see abnormal conditions
Conformity: Standards are maintained and improved upon
Custom and Practice: Everyone follows the rules, understands the benefits, and contributes to improvement


5Ms of Production

Man, Machine, Material, Method, and Measure. Understanding these factors and the establishment of Standards are key steps in strengthening the production processes.



5S is an approach to organizing the workplace to improve performance that stems from 5 Japanese words (Seiri, Seiton, Seiso, Seiketsu, Shitsuke), translated to Sort, Set in Order/Straighten, Shine/Sweep, Standardize, and Sustain. 5S utilizes visual controls to remove unnecessary materials and equipment, place items where they are needed to eliminate reaching and moving to find tools and equipment, standardizing the labeling and organization of items, and maintaining this through constant, thorough cleanliness and adherence to the first 4 Ss. This creates a safe, clean, organized, and high performance work environment.

See also Five S


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